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Cybersteel Inc.
376-293 City Road, Suite 600
San Francisco, CA 94102

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About us

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Agricultural Industry Electronics Foundation (AEF)

The AEF is an independent organization founded by agricultural equipment manufacturers and associations to provide a platform for electronic and electrical products in agriculture.

As-applied maps

During field operations and Variable Rate applications, set values are transferred to the machine monitor in a prescription map so that the machine reacts accordingly. During application, the actual values (actual quantities applied) are recorded and stored on the monitor. This makes it possible to check whether the application has been carried out correctly and the data can be used for documentation purposes.

Automatic boom section switching (Section Control)

The automatic boom section control ensures that boom sections are switched on and off automatically as soon as a boom section partially or completely extends into an already worked area or beyond the edge of the field.

Automatic Milking System (AMS)

With an automatic milking system, cows are automatically milked by a robot. Various sensors are used to measure the quantity and quality parameters of the milk. Thanks to the AMS, cows have access to milking 24 hours a day without the intervention of a milker.

Biomass map

A biomass map shows the distribution of biomass within a field, which is recorded using aerial imagery. Biomass maps serve as a basis for the creation of prescription maps for the georeferenced, site-specific fertilizer application.


The "Controller Area Network" (CAN bus) is a bus protocol that was developed in the 1980s. In order to simplify the increasing wiring of individual electronic components, sensors and actuators in the vehicle, it became necessary to introduce a bus system. The bus system should have a high level of security against electromagnetic interference, be real-time capable and reliable, and above all be cost-effective for series applications.

Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF)

In Controlled Traffic Farming, the same waylines are used over several years for all or for heavy-duty (CTF-light) operations in field farming. The aim is to achieve soil compaction limited to permanent tramlines.

Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)

DGPS is a method for correcting GNSS data and thus increasing the accuracy of GNSS navigation (see also EGNOS, RTK, SBAS).


EGNOS is the European satellite-based correction signal (see DGPS) for GPS. The system increases the accuracy in GNSS navigation.

Farm Management and Information System (FMIS)

FMIS are systems to support the management of an agricultural enterprise, in which all data and information is collected centrally and linked together. FMIS are designed to support farm managers and help to simplify operational procedures. Depending on their scope, the systems include functions for crop production, animal husbandry or accounting.

Forecast model

A forecast model is a software model that uses data sets and calculations to determine the risk of disease or pest infestation.


Galileo is a European system for satellite-based navigation that is currently being developed and offers a complement to GPS and GLONASS.


Geodata are spatial data to which a specific location on the earth's surface can be assigned. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to process geodata. Simple GIS applications are for example Satellite receivers on agricultural machines also work with geodata for automatic guidance on waylines.


The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a software-supported system for the acquisition, management and output of geodata. Such systems can be used in agriculture to create prescription maps or for area applications (e.g. LAGIS or ThurGIS).


The "Global Navigation Satellite System" describes the Russian counterpart to the American GPS (see also GPS).


The Global Navigation Satellite System is used as a general term for the satellite navigation systems GPS, GLONASS and Galileo. GNSS data provide the basis for many applications in agriculture such as the use of guidance systems.


Global positioning system, which can be used worldwide for exact navigation or positioning based on satellite signals. The global positioning system GPS is operated by the USA.

Guidance Systems

Guidance systems such as steering aids (optical lane indicators, but manual steering), steering assistance (automatic lane guidance via electric steering wheel motor) or automatic steering (fully integrated, automatic, hydraulic steering system) that takes over the steering process based on position data received from satellites, enable increased working accuracy and relieve the driver during the working process.

Herd management system

The herd management system is a software system to support the herd manager in managing his herd. In a herd management system, for example, animal-specific performance data, documentation on animal health or upcoming measures can be recorded and centrally managed. The herd manager thus has an overview and quick access to all animal-specific data and measures.

ISO 11783

Standard adopted by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for communication between agricultural machines. ISO 11783 is an internationally created standard in the development of which companies, authorities and science were involved. The term ISOBUS is usually used as a synonym, although the ISO 11783 standard covers much more than ISOBUS.


ISOBUS stands for a standardized technology for cross-manufacturer communication and data transfer between different components in agriculture. The main components are tractors, implements, operator monitors and FMIS.


ISO-XML is the format used by ISOBUS to transfer data between software and tractor.

Kinematics (see RTK)

Kinematics describes the spatial and temporal movements of bodies and mass points in three-dimensional space. The changes in location are considered as a function of time and described in equations of motion.


A nitrogen sensor is a (usually optical) sensor that determines the nitrogen content by measuring certain plant characteristics and calculates the fertilizer quantity accordingly (see also prescriptions maps).


Near-infrared spectroscopy is an optical method for the determination of ingredients in products. NIR sensors are used, for example, to determine nutrient contents during green fodder and silage maize harvesting.

Operator monitor

The operator monitor is a computer in the cab of an agricultural machine for operating and controlling the machine and the attached implements. With ISOBUS-compatible technical equipment, it can be used by all manufacturers. This means that theoretically only one operator terminal is needed to control the various implements and isolated solutions are avoided.

Precision Farming

Inclusion of the most modern control, sensor, regulation and information technology for the efficient use of all resources (equipment, machine, work, location). This includes the use of sensor-controlled systems both in animal husbandry (precision livestock farming) and in crop production.

Precision Livestock Farming

Precision Livestock Farming is a part of Precision Farming with a focus on animal husbandry. The main focus here is on automation in animal husbandry. Precision Livestock Farming includes milking with automatic milking systems, animal-individual health monitoring, automated feeding and the inclusion of manure robots.

Reference line

The reference line (AB line) is the initial wayline in wayline planning when working with guidance systems, which serves as the basis for creating additional waylines.

RTK (Real Time Kinematics)

Die Referenzspur (AB-Linie) ist die Ausgangsspur in der Spurlinienplanung bei der Arbeit mit Lenksystemen, die als Grundlage zur Anlage weiterer Spuren dient.

RTK (Real Time Kinematik)

Real-time kinematics (RTK) is a method for correction of GNSS data. Thus, an accuracy of +/- 2cm is achieved for agricultural applications. The correction data can be obtained via the GSM network or from a reference station on the farm.

Section Control

The automatic boom section control ensures automatic switching on and off of boom sections as soon as a boom section of an implement partially or completely extends into an already worked area or beyond the boundary of the field.

Shape files

The Shape Format is a format for storing geodata in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Shape files always consist of a .shp, .shx, .dbf and .prj file. Points, lines and areas can be saved in these files.

Site-specific applications (Variable Rate Control – VRC)

Site-specific, georeferenced applications are the underlying fundamentals of Variable Rate Control and describes the differentiated processing of applications or cultivation of a field on the basis of sub-sections depending on soil conditions, yield potential and current growth conditions. Variable Rate Control can be used for fertilization, tillage, seeding or the application of growth regulators.

Sub-sections (of a field)

The sub-section is a part of a field that is considered homogeneous due to its soil properties. The delimitation of sub-sections within an overall plot is based on soil samples or long-term yield maps.


Telemetry refers to the transmission of measured values by wire or wireless means. As a result, measured values such as diesel consumption can be recorded, evaluated and/or transmitted remotely and in relation to the location.

Variable Rate Control (site-specific applications)

Variable Rate Control describes differentiated applications, field operations or management practices of a field on the basis of sub-plots depending on soil conditions and yield potential.


WAAS stands for Wide Area Augmentation System and is the American version of the DGPS. The system increases the accuracy in GNSS navigation.

Yield potential map / yield expectation map

By combining soil characteristics and yield data, sub-area-specific yield potentials are determined and a yield potential map is generated for the area. This map can be used to carry out Variable Rate fertilization (N fertilization and basic fertilization).

Yield zone

A yield zone is a homogeneous zone within a heterogeneous field in which a uniform yield is expected. A field can therefore be divided into different yield zones and the management can be adjusted accordingly.

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